Objective: To systematically review the survival rate and incidence of complications of furcation-involved multirooted teeth following periodontal therapy after at least 5 years. Material and methods: Electronic and manual searches were performed up to and including January 2008. Publication selection, data extraction and validity assessment were performed independently by three reviewers. Results: Twenty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Because of the heterogeneity of the data, a meta-analysis could not be performed. The survival rate of molars treated non-surgically was >90% after 5-9 years. The corresponding values for the different surgical procedures were: Surgical therapy: 43.1% to 96%, observation period: 5-53 years. Tunnelling procedures: 42.9% to 92.9%, observation period: 5-8 years. Surgical resective procedures including amputation(s) and hemisections: 62% to 100%, observation period: 5-13 years. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR): 83.3% to 100%, observation period: 5-12 years. The most frequent complications included caries in the furcation area after tunnelling procedures and root fractures after root-resective procedures. Conclusions: Good long-term survival rates (up to 100%) of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement were obtained following various therapeutic approaches. Initial furcation involvement (Degree I) could be successfully managed by non-surgical mechanical debridement. Vertical root fractures and endodontic failures were the most frequent complications observed following resective procedures.
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