Synthesis and chemical characterization of 2-methoxy-N10-substituted acridones needed to reverse vinblastine resistance in multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells

Gowdahalli Krishnegowda, Padma Thimmaiah, Ravi Hegde, Chhabil Dass, Peter J. Houghton, Kuntebommanahalli N. Thimmaiah

Resultado de la investigación: Articlerevisión exhaustiva

36 Citas (Scopus)


In an attempt to find clinically useful modulators of multidrug resistance (MDR), a series of 19 N10-substituted-2-methoxyacridone analogues has been synthesized. 2-Methoxyacridone and its derivatives (1-19) were synthesized. Compound 1 was prepared by the Ullmann condensation of o-chlorobenzoic acid and p-anisidine followed by cyclization using polyphosphoric acid. This compound undergoes N-alkylation in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC). Stirring of 2-methoxy acridone with 1-bromo-3-chloropropane or 1-bromo-4-chlorobutane in a two-phase system consisting of organic phase (tetrahydrofuran) and 6 N potassium hydroxide in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide leads to the formation of compounds 2 and 11 in good yield. N-(ω-Chloroalkyl) analogues were found to undergo iodide catalyzed nucleophilic substitution reaction with various secondary amines. Products were characterized by UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass-spectral data and elemental analysis. The lipophilicity expressed in log10 P and pKa of compounds have been determined. All compounds were examined for their ability to increase the uptake of vinblastine (VLB) in MDR KBChR-8-5 cells and the results showed that the compounds 7, 10, 12, and 15-19 at 100 μM caused a 1.05- to 1.7-fold greater accumulation of vinblastine than did a similar concentration of the standard modulator, verapamil (VRP). However, the effects on VLB uptake were specific because these derivatives had little effect in the parental drug sensitive line KB-3-1. Steady state accumulation of VLB, a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux, was studied in the MDR cell line KBChR-8-5 in the presence and absence of novel MDR modulators. Results of the efflux experiment showed that VRP and each of the modulators (1-19) significantly inhibited the efflux of VLB, suggesting that they may be competitors for P-gp. From among the compounds examined, 14 except 1, 2, 4, 8, and 11, exhibited greater efflux inhibiting activity than VRP. All the 19 compounds effectively compete with [3H] azidopine for binding to P-gp, pointed out this transport membrane protein as their likely site of action. Cytotoxicity has been determined and the IC50 values lie in the range 8.00-18.50 μM for propyl and 4-15 μM for butyl derivatives against KBChR-8-5 cells suggesting that the antiproliferative activity increases as chain length increases from 3 to 4 carbons at N10-position. Compounds at IC10 were evaluated for their efficacy to modulate the cytotoxicity of VLB in KBChR-8-5 cells and found that the modulators enhanced the cytotoxicity of VLB by 5- to 35-fold. Modulators 12, 14-16, and 19 like VRP, were able to completely reverse the 24-fold resistance of KBChR-8-5 cells to VLB. Examination of the relationship between lipophilicity and antagonism of MDR showed a reasonable correlation suggesting that hydrophobicity is one of the determinants of potency for anti-MDR activity of 2-methoxyacridones.

Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)2367-2380
Número de páginas14
PublicaciónBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
EstadoPublished - 2002
Publicado de forma externa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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