While infection should always lead the differential when a patient with AIDS presents with fever, inflammatory and malignant aetiologies should also be considered. With profound immunocompromise, malignancies can develop as sequelae of viral oncogene expression. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection drives several AIDS-related cancers including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which can present simultaneously with variable clinical features. Herein, we describe a case of synchronous visceral KS and extracavitary PEL in a patient with AIDS. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy and remains in remission after four cycles. We review other cases of copresenting HHV-8-related malignancies, explore the salient pathomechanisms and clinical features of these cancers and discuss treatment strategies.
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