Introduction: We investigated the differences between prostate cancer patients with radiation-induced hematuria treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy that did or did not have a resolution of hematuria. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of prostate cancer patients with radiation-induced hematuria who underwent HBO from April 2000 to March 2010. We performed an analysis of demographic data and severity of hematuria in those who had resolution of or persistent hematuria. Additionally, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) data were also obtained during the study period. Results: Overall, 11/22 men had resolution of hematuria after HBO therapy with a median follow-up of 2.2 (0.35-13.6) years. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade of hematuria is predictive of final hematuria outcome (resolution vs. persistent) after HBO (p = 0.026). No significant PSA changes were noted before and after HBO therapy. Conclusions: The RTOG hematuria grade is associated with the resolution of hematuria after HBO therapy for radiation-induced hematuria in men treated for prostate cancer. This information may be helpful during shared medical decision-making regarding utility of HBO therapy in the context of severity of hematuria.
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