The acute phase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a pattern recognition receptor involved in regulation of the host immune response. This relatively newly discovered member of the pentraxin superfamily elicits both immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory functions preventing autoimmune pathology and orchestrated clearance of pathogens through opsonization of damage-and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMP/PAMP). Thus, PTX3 has been described as a possible evolutionary precursor to immunoglobulins. While shown to provide protection against specific bacterial and fungal pathogens, persistent elevation of PTX3 levels following initial onset of infection appear to predict poor patient outcome and may contribute to disease sequelae such as tissue damage and coagulopathy. Measurement of PTX3 following onset of sepsis may improve patient risk assessment and thus be useful in guiding subsequent therapeutic interventions including steroidal anti-inflammatory and altered antibiotic therapies. In this review, we summarize the role of PTX3 in inflammatory syndromes and its utility as a marker of sepsis disease severity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy