Intraoperative Use of Compensatory Reserve Measurement in Orthotopic Liver Transplant: Improved Sensitivity for the Prediction of Hypovolemic Events

Angelo Ciaraglia, Victor A. Convertino, Hanzhang Wang, Francisco Cigarroa, Elizabeth Thomas, Danielle Fritze, Susannah Nicholson, Brian Eastridge

Producción científica: Articlerevisión exhaustiva


Introduction: The compensatory reserve measurement (CRM) is a continuous non-invasive monitoring technology that measures the summation of all physiological mechanisms involved in the compensatory response to central hypovolemia. The CRM is displayed on a 0% to 100% scale. The objective of this study is to characterize the use of CRM in the operative setting and determine its ability to predict hypovolemic events compared to standard vital signs. Orthotopic liver transplant was used as the reference procedure because of the predictable occurrence of significant hemodynamic shifts. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted on 22 consecutive patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant. The subjects were monitored in accordance with the standard of care. The CRM data were collected concurrently with intraoperative staff blinded to the outputs. The data were stored on secure devices on encrypted files. Based on prior literature, subgroup analysis was performed for high-tolerance (good compensators) and low-tolerance (poor compensators) groups, which was based on a shock index threshold of 0.9. Threshold events were defined as follows: CRM below 60% (CRM60), systolic blood pressure (SBP) below 90 mmHg (SBP90), and heart rate (HR) above 100 beats per minute (HR100). Results: Complete data were captured in 22 subjects as a result of device malfunction or procedure cancellation. Sensitivity analysis was performed for the detection of hypovolemia at the time of the event. CRM60 was the most sensitive (62.6%) when compared to other threshold measures such as SBP90 (30.6%), HR100 (23.1%), elevated lactate (54.6%), and a drop in hemoglobin (41.7%). The number of patients meeting the CRM60 threshold at the time of the first transfusion (TFX) was higher when compared to SBP90 and HR100 in the overall group (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively) and both the high-tolerance (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively) and low-tolerance groups (P = .016 and P = .001, respectively). Similar results supporting the higher sensitivity of CRM were observed when comparing the number of patients below the threshold at the time of the first vasopressor administration. Start time was standardized so that the time-to-threshold signals for hemodynamic and laboratory parameters could be compared. The median time-to-CRM signal detection before the TFX event was −15.0 minutes (i.e., 15 minutes before TFX). There was no difference when compared to the SBP threshold (median time −5.0 minutes, P = .64) but was significantly sooner when compared to HR (P = .006), lactate (P = .002), and hemoglobin (P < .001). Conclusions: At the time of the first TFX, the CRM had a higher rate of detection of a hypovolemic event compared to SBP and HR, indicating a higher sensitivity for the detection of the first hypovolemic event. When combined with all hypovolemic events, sensitivity analysis showed that CRM60 provides the earlier predictive capability. Given that SBP is the clinical standard of care for the initiation of TFX, the finding that median time to event detection was statistically similar between CRM60 and SBP90 was not unexpected. When compared to other measures of hypovolemia, the CRM consistently showed earlier detection of hypovolemic events. Although this study had a small sample size, it produced significant results and can serve as a proof of concept for future large-scale studies.

Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)322-327
Número de páginas6
PublicaciónMilitary medicine
EstadoPublished - nov 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Profundice en los temas de investigación de 'Intraoperative Use of Compensatory Reserve Measurement in Orthotopic Liver Transplant: Improved Sensitivity for the Prediction of Hypovolemic Events'. En conjunto forman una huella única.

Citar esto