Recently, inhaled immunosuppressive agents have attracted increasing attention for maintenance therapy following lung transplantation. The rationale for this delivery approach includes a more targeted and localized delivery to the diseased site with reduced systemic exposure, potentially leading to decreased adverse side effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo performance of an amorphous formulation prepared by thin film freezing (TFF) and a crystalline micronized formulation produced by milling was compared for tacrolimus (TAC). Despite the relatively large geometric size, the TFF-processed formulation was capable of achieving deep lung delivery due to its low-density, highly porous, and brittle characteristics. When emitted from a Miat® monodose inhaler, TFF-processed TAC formulations exhibited a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 83.3% and a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.26 μm. Single-dose 24-h pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated that the TAC formulation prepared by TFF exhibited higher pulmonary bioavailability with a prolonged retention time in the lung, possibly due to decreased clearance (e.g., macrophage phagocytosis), compared to the micronized TAC formulation. Additionally, TFF formulation generated a lower systemic TAC concentration with smaller variability than the micronized formulation following inhalation, potentially leading to reduced side effects related to the drug in systemic circulation.
|Idioma original||English (US)|
|Número de páginas||13|
|Estado||Published - ago 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science