Development of Opioid Use Disorder After Breast Reconstruction: Effects of Nicotine Exposure

Destin Groff, Zachary Freedman, Ambroise Gilles, Curtis Bone, Timothy Shane Johnson

Producción científica: Articlerevisión exhaustiva


Introduction After undergoing breast reconstructive surgery, patients are typically prescribed opioids. Smoking tobacco increases rate of opioid metabolism and is associated with development of opioid use disorder (OUD). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who smoke have an increased risk of OUD after breast reconstructive surgery. Given that OUD is a known risk factor for injection drug use and intravenous drug use increases risk of acquiring blood-borne diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis, the secondary aim was to determine if these patients are also at increased risk of acquiring these communicable diseases associated with OUD. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using TriNetX, a multi-institutional deidentified database. Individuals included underwent a breast reconstructive surgery and received postoperative opioid treatment. The exposed group included patients who smoke. The control group did not smoke. Risk of developing OUD, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV from 12 to 36 months after surgery was compared between groups. Patients with preexisting OUD or associated diseases were excluded. Cohorts were matched to control for confounding factors including age, sex, race, mental health history, and concomitant substance use. Results There were 8648 patients included in the analysis. After matching, 4324 patients comprised the exposure group, and 4324 patients remained in the control group. Preoperative smoking was significantly associated with increased risk of OUD at 12, 24, and 36 months after breast reconstruction (36 months: odds ratio [OR], 2.722; confidence interval [CI], 2.268-6.375). Smoking was also associated with increased risk of HIV and HCV at all time points after surgery (36 months HIV: OR, 2.614; CI, 1.977-3.458; 36 months HCV: OR, 3.718; CI, 2.268-6.375) and increased risk of HBV beginning at 24 months after surgery (36 months HBV: OR, 2.722; CI, 1.502-4.935). Conclusions Individuals who smoke have an increased risk of developing OUD, HIV, HCV, and HBV after breast reconstructive surgery. This risk persists for at least 3 years after surgery. Additional research and clinical interventions focusing on early identification of OUD, prevention efforts, and harm reduction strategies for patients who smoke or have nicotine dependence undergoing breast reconstruction are warranted.

Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Páginas (desde-hasta)S241-S244
PublicaciónAnnals of plastic surgery
EstadoPublished - abr 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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