Biliary Disorders, Anomalies, and Malignancies in Children

Curtis L. Simmons, Laura K. Harper, Mittun C. Patel, Venkat S. Katabathina, Richard N. Southard, Luis Goncalves, Evelyn Tran, Deepa R. Biyyam

Producción científica: Articlerevisión exhaustiva

Resumen

Biliary abnormalities in children are uncommon, and the spectrum of biliary disorders is broader than in adult patients. Unlike in adults, biliary disorders in children are rarely neoplastic and are more commonly rhabdomyosarcoma rather than cholangiocarcinoma. Pediatric biliary disorders may be embryologic or congenital, such as anatomic gallbladder anomalies, anomalous pancreaticobiliary tracts, various cholestatic processes, congenital cystic lesions, or genetic conditions. They may also be benign, such as biliary filling anomalies, biliary motility disorders, and biliary inflammatory and infectious disorders. Distinguishing these entities with a single imaging modality is challenging. US is the primary imaging modality for initial evaluation of biliary abnormalities in children, due to its wide availability, lack of ionizing radiation, and low cost and because it requires no sedation. Other examinations such as MRI, CT, and nuclear medicine examinations may provide anatomic and functional information to narrow the diagnosis further. Hepatobiliary-specific contrast material with MRI can provide better assessment of biliary anatomy on delayed images than can traditional MRI contrast material. MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) allows visualization of the intra-and extrahepatic biliary ducts, which may not be possible with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Suspected biliary atresia requires multiple modalities for diagnosis and timely treatment. Determining the type of choledochal cyst calls for a combination of initial US and MRCP. Many benign and malignant biliary masses require biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Knowledge of the imaging appearances of different pediatric biliary abnormalities is necessary for appropriate imaging workup, providing a diagnosis or differential diagnosis, and guiding appropriate management.

Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Número de artículoe230109
PublicaciónRadiographics
Volumen44
N.º3
DOI
EstadoPublished - mar 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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