This preliminary study of four elbow specimens inves tigates the relationship of articular geometry and liga mentous structures in providing stability to the elbow joint. A technique is presented that describes the con straining features of varus-valgus and distraction in extension and at 90° of elbow flexion. Valgus stability is equally divided among the medial collateral ligament, anterior capsule, and bony articulation in full extension; whereas, at 90° of flexion the contribution of the ante rior capsule is assumed by the medial collateral ligament which provides approximately 55% of the stabilizing contribution to valgus stress. Varus stress is noted to be resisted primarily by the anterior capsule (32%) and the joint articulation (55%) with only a small (14%) contribution from the radial collateral ligament. At 90° of flexion, little change is noted in the contribution to the radial collateral ligament (9%), but the anterior capsule offers only 13%, with the remaining stability (75%) arising from the joint articulation. In extension, the soft tissue resistance to distraction is provided minimally by either the radial (5%) or the medial (5%) collateral ligaments, and thus primarily originates from the anterior capsule (85%). At 90° of flexion, however, the capsule offers virtually no resistance to distraction (8%). The radial collateral ligament contributes 10% of the stability, while the medial collateral ligament ac counts for 78% of the resistance to distraction in this position. Too few specimens have been studied to form any conclusions for direct clinical applications at this time. However, the technique provides a reliable tool with additional studies for different positions and loading conditions underway. These efforts should disclose useful information that might be applied to the manage ment of chronic elbow instability, radial head or olecra non fracture, the design and implantation of elbow prostheses, or provide a rationale for other reconstruc tive procedures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation