A Comprehensive Review of Calcineurin Inhibitors Used for Immunosuppression in Cardiac Transplantation

Lydia R. Engwenyu, Allen S. Anderson

Producción científica: Chapter

3 Citas (Scopus)


Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have been the foundation of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation since the 1980s. Cyclosporine A (CSA), the first in class, was identified as the metabolite of the soil fungus Tolypocladium inflatum Gams as part of a larger program of screening for naturally occurring fungal metabolites with biologic activity in the 1970s. Significant immunosuppressive effects were discovered and consequently CSA was trialed as an immunosuppressant in renal transplantation. This initial success led to its widespread study and adoption in solid organ transplantation. This novel agent yielded significant improvements in both 1 year and longer-term allograft and patient survival. Subsequently, a similar and more potent CNI, tacrolimus was developed. Today, it is the principal CNI used for prevention of allograft rejection. Like all other immunosuppressives, the benefits of CNIs are counterbalanced by side effects and complications resulting from drug toxicity. This chapter comprehensively reviews the clinical use of CNIs in cardiac transplantation.

Idioma originalEnglish (US)
Título de la publicación alojadaHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
EditorialSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Número de páginas12
EstadoPublished - 2022
Publicado de forma externa

Serie de la publicación

NombreHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
ISSN (versión impresa)0171-2004
ISSN (versión digital)1865-0325

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Biochemistry


Profundice en los temas de investigación de 'A Comprehensive Review of Calcineurin Inhibitors Used for Immunosuppression in Cardiac Transplantation'. En conjunto forman una huella única.

Citar esto