The effects of a prolonged exposure workshop with and without consultation on provider and patient outcomes: a randomized implementation trial

  • Edna B. Foa (Creator)
  • Carmen P. McLean (Creator)
  • Lily A. Brown (Creator)
  • Yinyin Zang (Contributor)
  • David Rosenfield (Creator)
  • Laurie Zandberg (Creator)
  • Wayne Ealey (Creator)
  • Brenda S. Hanson (Creator)
  • Lora Rose Hunter (Creator)
  • Ivett J. Lillard (Contributor)
  • Thomas J. Patterson (Creator)
  • Julio Rosado (Creator)
  • Valerie Scott (Creator)
  • Charles Weber (Creator)
  • Joseph E. Wise (Creator)
  • Charles Zamora (Creator)
  • Jim Mintz (Creator)
  • Stacey Young-McCaughan (Contributor)
  • Alan L Peterson (Creator)
  • Edna B. Foa (Creator)
  • Carmen P. McLean (Creator)
  • Lora Rose Hunter (Creator)
  • Jim Mintz (Creator)
  • Stacey Young-McCaughan (Creator)



Abstract Background Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is underutilized in the military health system. Standard workshop training in PE may not be sufficient to alter provider behavior, but post-workshop consultation requires significant resources. Therefore, it is important to determine the incremental utility of post-workshop consultation. Methods This study used a hybrid type III randomized implementation trial at 3 US Army installations. Providers were randomized to receive a 4-day prolonged exposure workshop (Standard training condition, n = 60), or the prolonged exposure workshop followed by 6–8 months of post-workshop expert case consultation (Extended training condition, n = 43). The effects training condition were examined on provider attitudes (self-efficacy in delivering PE, expectations for patient improvement, and beliefs about PE), use of PE and PE components, and clinical outcomes of patients with PTSD (using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5)). Results Extended condition providers reported greater improvements in self-efficacy, b = .83, 95% CI [.38, 1.27], t(79) = 3.71, p = .001, and d = .63. A greater proportion of patients in the Extended condition (44%) than in the Standard condition (27%) received at least 1 PE session, b = .76, t(233) = 2.53, p = .012, and OR = 2.13. Extended condition providers used more PE components (M = .9/session) than did Standard condition providers (M = .5/session), b = .54, 95% CI [.15, .93], t(68) = 2.70, p = .007, and d = .68. Finally, decrease in patients’ PTSD symptoms was faster for patients of Extended condition providers than for patients of Standard condition providers, b = − 1.81, 95% CI [− 3.57, − .04], t(263) = − 2.02, p = .045, and d = .66, and their symptoms were lower at the second assessment, b = − 5.47, 95% CI [− 9.30, − 1.63], t(210) = − 2.81, p = .005, and d = .66. Conclusions Post-workshop consultation improved self-efficacy for delivering PE, greater use of PE, faster PTSD reduction, and lower PTSD severity at the second assessment. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that post-workshop case consultation for PE improves patient outcomes. Trial registration , NCT02982538 . Registered December 5, 2016; retrospectively registered
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