Background: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare inborn error of purine metabolism marked by a complete deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic disorder that primarily affects males, patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome exhibit severe neurological impairments, including choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive dysfunction, and self-injurious behavior. Uric acid levels are usually abnormally high, leading to kidney and bladder stones which often necessitate urological intervention. Factor V Leiden is an autosomal dominant disorder of blood clotting associated with hypercoagulability, thrombophilia, and renal disease. Case presentation: We present the first reported case of xanthine calculi in a patient with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Factor V Leiden who was treated with allopurinol. A renal ultrasound and CT scan demonstrated bilateral staghorn calculi in the kidneys as well as nephrocalcinosis. Two years earlier the patient underwent cystoscopy with bilateral ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy, and he was stone free afterwards. The patient subsequently underwent bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and was stone free following the procedure. Patients with endogenous overproduction of uric acid who are being treated with allopurinol have a higher chance of developing xanthine stones. Conclusions: Pediatricians treating these children should be aware of these rare conditions and promptly manage the potential complications that may require medical or surgical intervention.
- Factor V Leiden
- Kidney stones
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health