Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution

M. A. Pfaller, A. Espinel-Ingroff, E. Canton, M. Castanheira, M. Cuenca-Estrella, D. J. Diekema, A. Fothergill, J. Fuller, M. Ghannoum, R. N. Jones, S. R. Lockhart, E. Martin-Mazuelos, M. S C Melhem, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner, P. Pappas, T. Pelaez, J. Peman, J. Rex, M. W. Szeszs

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Abstract

Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for several Candida spp. and the newer triazoles and echinocandins but are not yet available for older antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B, flucytosine, or itraconazole. We determined species-specific ECVs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC) and itraconazole (ITR) for eight Candida spp. (30,221 strains) using isolates from 16 different laboratories in Brazil, Canada, Europe, and the United States, all tested by the CLSI reference microdilution method. The calculated 24- and 48-h ECVs expressed in μg/ml (and the percentages of isolates that had MICs less than or equal to the ECV) for AMB, FC, and ITR, respectively, were 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (94.2)/1 (91.4), and 0.12 (95.0)/0.12 (92.9) for C. albicans; 2 (99.6)/2 (98.7), 0.5 (98.0)/0.5 (97.5), and 2 (95.2)/4 (93.5) for C. glabrata; 2 (99.7)/2 (97.3), 0.5 (98.7)/0.5 (97.8), and 05. (99.7)/0.5 (98.5) for C. parapsilosis; 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (93.0)/1 (90.5), and 0.5 (97.8)/0.5 (93.9) for C. tropicalis; 2 (99.3)/4 (100.0), 32 (99.4)/32 (99.3), and 1 (99.0)/2 (100.0) for C. krusei; 2 (100.0)/4 (100.0), 0.5 (95.3)/1 (92.9), and 0.5 (95.8)/0.5 (98.1) for C. lusitaniae; -/2 (100.0), 0.5 (98.8)/0.5 (97.7), and 0.25 (97.6)/0.25 (96.9) for C. dubliniensis; and 2 (100.0)/2 (100.0), 1 (92.7)/-, and 1 (100.0)/2 (100.0) for C. guilliermondii. In the absence of species-specific CBP values, these wild-type (WT) MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful for monitoring the emergence of reduced susceptibility to these well-established antifungal agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2040-2046
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of clinical microbiology
Volume50
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)

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    Pfaller, M. A., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Canton, E., Castanheira, M., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Diekema, D. J., Fothergill, A., Fuller, J., Ghannoum, M., Jones, R. N., Lockhart, S. R., Martin-Mazuelos, E., Melhem, M. S. C., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Pappas, P., Pelaez, T., Peman, J., Rex, J., & Szeszs, M. W. (2012). Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution. Journal of clinical microbiology, 50(6), 2040-2046. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00248-12