What animal models have taught us about the treatment of acute stroke and brain protection.

S. H. Ahmed, A. Y. Shaikh, Z. Shaikh, C. Y. Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Stroke research has progressed in leaps and bounds in the past decades. A driving force is the increasing availability of new research tools in this field (eg, animal stroke models). Animal stroke models have been extensively applied to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of ischemic brain injury and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for reducing brain damage after a stroke. Animal stroke models have been useful in characterizing the molecular cascades of injury processes. These "injury pathways" are also the targets of therapeutic interventions. The major achievements made in the past 2 decades applying animal stroke models include 1) the identification of the mediator role of excitotoxin and oxygen free radicals in ischemic brain injury; 2) the confirmation of apoptosis as a major mechanism of ischemic cell death; 3) the characterization of postischemic gene expression; 4) the delineation of postischemic inflammatory reaction; 5) the application of transgenic mice to confirm the roles of purported mediators in ischemic brain injury; 6) development of novel magnetic resonance imaging sequences for early noninvasive detection of ischemic brain lesions; and, 7) the development of novel therapeutic strategies based on preclinical findings derived from animal stroke models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-180
Number of pages14
JournalCurrent atherosclerosis reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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