Wearable sensors incorporating compensatory reserve measurement for advancing physiological monitoring in critically injured trauma patients

Victor A. Convertino, Steven G. Schauer, Erik K. Weitzel, Sylvain Cardin, Mark E. Stackle, Michael J. Talley, Michael N. Sawka, Omer T. Inan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Vital signs historically served as the primary method to triage patients and resources for trauma and emergency care, but have failed to provide clinically-meaningful predictive information about patient clinical status. In this review, a framework is presented that focuses on potential wearable sensor technologies that can harness necessary electronic physiological signal integration with a current state-of-the-art predictive machine-learning algorithm that provides early clinical assessment of hypovolemia status to impact patient outcome. The ability to study the physiology of hemorrhage using a human model of progressive central hypovolemia led to the development of a novel machine-learning algorithm known as the compensatory reserve measurement (CRM). Greater sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy to detect hemorrhage and onset of decompensated shock has been demonstrated by the CRM when compared to all standard vital signs and hemodynamic variables. The development of CRM revealed that continuous measurements of changes in arterial waveform features represented the most integrated signal of physiological compensation for conditions of reduced systemic oxygen delivery. In this review, detailed analysis of sensor technologies that include photoplethysmography, tonometry, ultrasound-based blood pressure, and cardiogenic vibration are identified as potential candidates for harnessing arterial waveform analog features required for real-time calculation of CRM. The integration of wearable sensors with the CRM algorithm provides a potentially powerful medical monitoring advancement to save civilian and military lives in emergency medical settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6413
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Compensatory reserve
  • Medical monitoring
  • Physiology
  • Vital signs
  • Wearable sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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