Visual hallucinations in photographs in Parkinson's disease

Okeanis Vaou, Marie Saint-Hilaire, Joseph Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Visual hallucinations are reported in 16-37% of drug-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common hallucinations in PD. We report two patients with PD with symptoms that uniquely integrate visual hallucinations and delusions. We report two cases of patients with PD with visual hallucinations who saw the persistence of these hallucinations in photographs. These pictures were taken to prove the absence of these hallucinations. We believe this is the first description of this peculiar phenomenon, in which hallucinations or illusions could be replicated in photographs. Both patients had delusions associated with the images and we speculate that the images they saw in the photographs represent a further delusion, hence a 'delusional hallucination' or 'delusional illusion.' We believe that delusions fostering hallucinations are rare.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBMJ case reports
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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