Virtual reality environments for post-stroke arm rehabilitation

Sandeep Subramanian, Luiz A. Knaut, Christian Beaudoin, Bradford J. McFadyen, Anatol G. Feldman, Mindy F. Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Introduction. Optimal practice and feedback elements are essential requirements for maximal motor recovery in patients with motor deficits due to central nervous system lesions. Methods. A virtual environment (VE) was created that incorporates practice and feedback elements necessary for maximal motor recovery. It permits varied and challenging practice in a motivating environment that provides salient feedback. Results. The VE gives the user knowledge of results feedback about motor behavior and knowledge of performance feedback about the quality of pointing movements made in a virtual elevator. Movement distances are related to length of body segments. Conclusion. We describe an immersive and interactive experimental protocol developed in a virtual reality environment using the CAREN system. The VE can be used as a training environment for the upper limb in patients with motor impairments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20
JournalJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Health Informatics


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