Viral and immunologic examination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected, persistently seronegative persons

Dennis L. Ellenberger, Patrick S. Sullivan, Jonathan Dorn, Charles Schable, Thomas J. Spira, Thomas M. Folks, Renu B. Lal

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    24 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Persons who were human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected but who remained persistently seronegative (HIPS) on HIV-1 antibody tests were examined through AIDS case surveillance. Six such individuals (HIPS-1 to -4, -7, and -9) were examined to determine whether their persistent seronegativity was attributable to immune dysfunction or infection with atypical HIV. Of the 6, 4 had antibody titers to at least 1 other common pathogen. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIPS-4 and HIPS-7 with pokeweed mitogen or phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (direct B cell mitogen) did not produce HIV-1-specific antibody. Reconstitution experiments with recombinant interleukin (rIL)-4 and rIL-12 also had no impact on antibody production. Virus isolates from HIPS-4 and -9 were R5X4-tropic, whereas HIPS-7 was CCR5-tropic only. Sequence analysis of long terminal repeat, p24, and env gp41 did not reveal any specific mutation, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all 6 virus specimens were HIV-1 subtype B. These data suggest that the lack of a detectable antibody response in these patients may be the result of immune dysfunction.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1033-1042
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
    Volume180
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 1999

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Infectious Diseases

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