Validation of a Spanish translation of the CLOX for use in Hispanic samples: The Hispanic EPESE Study

Donald R. Royall, David V Espino, Marsha J. Polk, Regina Verdeja, Sandra Vale, Hector Gonzales, Raymond R. Palmer, Kyriakos P. Markides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Objectives: Clock drawing tests (CDT) appear to be less vulnerable to linguistic, cultural, or educational bias than traditional dementia screening instruments. We investigated a Spanish language translation of CLOX: an executive CDT, in a community sample of Hispanic elders. Methods: In-home CLOX evaluations of 1309 Mexican-American elders were reviewed. Results: Both CLOX1 (an executive CDT) and CLOX2 (a constructional CDT) showed good internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha; both α = 0.82). Cultural-demographic variables had little effect on CLOX scores. Although language had a significant effect on CLOX1 failure rates, this was not mediated by age, education, acculturation or income. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Spanish CLOX can be validly administered to community-based Hispanic elder samples regardless of education or acculturation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalInternational journal of geriatric psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Aged
  • Mental status testing
  • Mexican-American

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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