Utility of CT assessment in hematology patients with invasive aspergillosis: A post-hoc analysis of phase 3 data

Jie Jin, Depei Wu, Yang Liu, Sisi Pan, Jean Li Yan, Jalal A. Aram, Yin Jun Lou, Haitao Meng, Xiaochen Chen, Xian'An Zhang, Ilan S. Schwartz, Thomas F. Patterson

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Abstract

Background: Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly used as part of the clinical criteria in diagnostic workup of invasive fungal diseases like invasive aspergillosis, and may identify radiographic abnormalities, such as halo signs or air-crescent signs. We assessed the diagnostic utility of CT assessment in patients with hematologic malignancies or those who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in whom invasive aspergillosis was suspected. Methods: This post-hoc analysis assessed data from a prospective, multicenter, international trial of voriconazole (with and without anidulafungin) in patients with suspected invasive aspergillosis (IA; proven, probable, or possible, using 2008 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group criteria) [NCT00531479]. Eligible patients received at least one baseline lung CT scan. Results: Of 395 patients included in this post-hoc analysis, 240 patients (60.8%) had 'confirmed' proven (9/240, 3.8%) or probable (231/240, 96.3%) invasive aspergillosis (cIA) and 155 patients (39.2%) had 'non-confirmed' invasive aspergillosis (all nIA; all possible IA (de Pauw et al., Clin Infect Dis 46:1813-21, 2008)). Mean age was 52.3 and 50.5 years, 56.3 and 60.0% of patients were male, and most patients were white (71.7 and 71.0%) in the cIA and nIA populations, respectively. Median baseline galactomannan was 1.4 (cIA) and 0.2 (nIA), mean Karnofsky score was 65.3 (cIA) and 66.8 (nIA), and mean baseline platelet count was 48.0 (cIA) and 314.1 (nIA). Pulmonary nodules (46.8% of all patients), bilateral lung lesions (37.5%), unilateral lung lesions (28.4%), and consolidation (24.8%) were the most common radiographic abnormalities. Ground-glass attenuation (cIA: 24.2%; nIA: 11.6%; P < 0.01) and pulmonary nodules (cIA: 52.5%; nIA: 38.1%; P < 0.01) were associated with cIA. Other chest CT scan abnormalities (including halo signs and air-crescent signs) at baseline in patients with hematologic malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and suspected IA, were not associated with cIA. Conclusions: These findings highlight the limitations in the sensitivity of chest CT scans for the diagnosis of IA, and reinforce the importance of incorporating other available clinical data to guide management decisions on individual patients, including whether empirical treatment is reasonable, pending full evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number471
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 28 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antifungal treatment
  • Computed tomography scans
  • Diagnosis
  • Hematologic malignancy
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • Invasive aspergillosis
  • Radiographic abnormalities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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    Jin, J., Wu, D., Liu, Y., Pan, S., Yan, J. L., Aram, J. A., Lou, Y. J., Meng, H., Chen, X., Zhang, XA., Schwartz, I. S., & Patterson, T. F. (2019). Utility of CT assessment in hematology patients with invasive aspergillosis: A post-hoc analysis of phase 3 data. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(1), [471]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4039-7