Using a Delphi Technique to Define Primary Care Behavioral Health Clinical Supervision Competencies

Stacy A. Ogbeide, Bryan Bayles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is an increasing need for Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) workforce development (i.e., increase in well-trained PCBH providers) given the growth of behavioral health (BH) integration into primary care, specifically at a time when behavioral health needs are increasing because of the COVID-19 pandemic (Kanzler and Ogbeide in Psychol Trauma 12(S1):S177–S179,, 2020). Therefore, it is imperative to provide current and future behavioral health clinical supervisors in primary care settings specific competencies, given there are no current competencies specific to clinical supervision within the PCBH Model. Using a Delphi process, the authors identified and reached expert consensus on competencies for BH clinical supervisors in primary care. A purposive sample (in: Patton, Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Sage, Newbury Park, 1990) of fifteen experts (n = 15) in PCBH clinical training and education evaluated quantitative and qualitative domains and specific competencies associated with PCBH supervision gathered during an initial in-depth qualitative interview. This was followed by two subsequent rounds of quantitative Delphi surveys to reach consensus. The response rates from our panel of experts were 100% (15/15) for all stages (interviews, round one and round two surveys). Three domains (Primary Care Knowledge, Clinical Supervisor Development, and Clinical Supervision Skills) were rated as essential for providing clinical supervision with PCBH for pre-licensure level learners. The development of competencies will further support BH clinical supervisor needs, professional development, and provide a concrete way to evaluate progress towards teaching and training excellence. This will also have a great impact on the development of the future BH workforce within primary care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-121
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • Clinical supervision
  • Primary care behavioral health
  • Workforce development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology


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