Use of oxygen-15 to measure oxygen-carrying capacity of blood substitutes in vivo

W. T. Phillips, L. Lemen, B. Goins, A. S. Rudolph, R. Klipper, D. Fresne, P. A. Jerabek, M. E. Emch, C. Martin, P. T. Fox, C. A. McMahan

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Abstract

A method for determining oxygen-carrying capacity of blood substitutes has been developed using the short-lived cyclotron-produced positron-emitting isotope 15O. This method measures the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood substitutes in vive in the presence of red blood cells and allows determination of changes in the oxygen-carrying capacity over time after exchange transfusion. This method is applied to the blood substitutes of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) and cell-free hemoglobin (Hb). We have used 15O (half-life of 2 rain) to quantitate the lung uptake and tissue delivery of [15O2]LEH. Lung uptake studies were performed in intubated, catheterized rats after a 40% exchange transfusion of bovine LEH (LEBH; 0.68 g Hb/kg body wt), human hemolysate LEH (LEHH; 1.0 g Hb/kg body wt), or free bovine hemoglobin (SFHS; 0.56 g Hb/kg body wt). A bolus inhalation of 15O2 (3-5 mCi) was given at 15 min, 3 h, and 24 h post-transfusion. Arterial blood samples were collected, spun, and separated into LEH, red blood cell, and plasma fractions. 15O activity and hemoglobin content were determined for each fraction. Oxygen-carrying capacity was calculated as a percentage of the original red blood cell fraction removed. For LEBH, the carrying capacity was 15% at 15 min, 13% at 3 h, and 1% at 24 h. For LEHH, the carrying capacity was 30% at 15 min, 26% at 3 h, and 19% at 24 h. The marked decrease in carrying capacity at 24 h for LEBH compared with LEHH was attributable to the increased formation of methemoglobin in the circulating LEBH rather than increased removal from circulation, because total hemoglobin concentrations measured for both LEH samples decreased at a similar rate during the 24 h. The presence of methemoglobin reductase and other naturally occurring antioxidants in the LEHH may be responsible for maintaining the higher levels of oxyhemoglobin. Oxygen-carrying capacity for SFHS also decreased over time but at a much sharper rate compared with both LEH formulations. The carrying capacity for SFHS of 8% measured at 15 min decreased to 0.3% at 3 h and undetectable levels at 24 h. This sharper decrease in carrying capacity for SFHS is attributable to the rapid removal of the hemoglobin from circulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H2492-H2499
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume272
Issue number5 41-5
StatePublished - Jun 17 1997

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Keywords

  • hemoglobin
  • liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Phillips, W. T., Lemen, L., Goins, B., Rudolph, A. S., Klipper, R., Fresne, D., Jerabek, P. A., Emch, M. E., Martin, C., Fox, P. T., & McMahan, C. A. (1997). Use of oxygen-15 to measure oxygen-carrying capacity of blood substitutes in vivo. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 272(5 41-5), H2492-H2499.