Urinary Proteomics Identifies Cathepsin D as a Biomarker of Rapid eGFR Decline in Type 1 Diabetes

Kidney Precision Medicine Project

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE Understanding mechanisms underlying rapid estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline is important to predict and treat kidney disease in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a case-control study nested within four T1D cohorts to identify urinary proteins associated with rapid eGFR decline. Case and control subjects were categorized based on eGFR decline ≥3 and <1 mL/min/1.73 m2 /year, respectively. We used targeted liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrome-try to measure 38 peptides from 20 proteins implicated in diabetic kidney dis-ease. Significant proteins were investigated in complementary human cohorts and in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cell cultures. RESULTS The cohort study included 1,270 participants followed a median 8 years. In the discovery set, only cathepsin D peptide and protein were significant on full adjustment for clinical and laboratory variables. In the validation set, associations of cathepsin D with eGFR decline were replicated in minimally adjusted models but lost significance with adjustment for albuminuria. In a meta-analysis with combination of discovery and validation sets, the odds ratio for the association of cathepsin D with rapid eGFR decline was 1.29 per SD (95% CI 1.07–1.55). In complementary human cohorts, urine cathepsin D was associated with tubulointerstitial injury and tubulointerstitial cathepsin D expression was associated with increased cortical interstitial fractional volume. In mouse proximal tubular epithelial cell cultures, advanced glycation end product–BSA increased cathepsin D activity and inflammatory and tubular injury markers, which were further increased with cathepsin D siRNA. CONCLUSIONS Urine cathepsin D is associated with rapid eGFR decline in T1D and reflects kidney tubulointerstitial injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1416-1427
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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