Understanding the role of radiologists in complex treatment decisions for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Omar Kamal, Natally Horvat, Sandeep Arora, Humaira Chaudhry, Mohab Elmohr, Lokesh Khanna, Pankaj Sharma Nepal, Manida Wungjramirun, Sadhna B. Nandwana, Anuradha S. Shenoy-Bhangle, James Lee, Ania Kielar, Robert Marks, Khaled Elsayes, Alice Fung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and represents a significant global health burden. Management of HCC can be challenging due to multiple factors, including variable expectations for treatment outcomes. Several treatment options are available, each with specific eligibility and ineligibility criteria, and are provided by a multidisciplinary team of specialists. Radiologists should be aware of the types of treatment options available, as well as the criteria guiding the development of individualized treatment plans. This awareness enables radiologists to contribute effectively to patient-centered multidisciplinary tumor boards for HCC and play a central role in reassessing care plans when the treatment response is deemed inadequate. This comprehensive review aims to equip radiologists with an overview of HCC staging systems, treatment options, and eligibility criteria. The review also discusses the significance of imaging in HCC diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring treatment response. Furthermore, we highlight the crucial branch points in the treatment decision-making process that depend on radiological interpretation. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3677-3687
Number of pages11
JournalAbdominal Radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Liver imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Urology
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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