Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Ralph A Defronzo, Ele Ferrannini, Leif Groop, Robert R. Henry, William H. Herman, Jens Juul Holst, Frank B. Hu, C. Ronald Kahn, Itamar Raz, Gerald I. Shulman, Donald C. Simonson, Marcia A. Testa, Ram Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular comorbidities), owing to hyperglycaemia and individual components of the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome. Environmental factors (for example, obesity, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity) and genetic factors contribute to the multiple pathophysiological disturbances that are responsible for impaired glucose homeostasis in T2DM. Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion remain the core defects in T2DM, but at least six other pathophysiological abnormalities contribute to the dysregulation of glucose metabolism. The multiple pathogenetic disturbances present in T2DM dictate that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt the progressive pancreatic β-cell failure that is characteristic of T2DM and prevent or reverse the microvascular complications. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/V2eGfN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15019
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Volume1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 23 2015

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Glucose
Hypoglycemic Agents
Hyperglycemia
Comorbidity
Homeostasis
Quality of Life
Insulin
Diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Defronzo, R. A., Ferrannini, E., Groop, L., Henry, R. R., Herman, W. H., Holst, J. J., ... Weiss, R. (2015). Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 1, [15019]. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2015.19

Type 2 diabetes mellitus. / Defronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif; Henry, Robert R.; Herman, William H.; Holst, Jens Juul; Hu, Frank B.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Raz, Itamar; Shulman, Gerald I.; Simonson, Donald C.; Testa, Marcia A.; Weiss, Ram.

In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers, Vol. 1, 15019, 23.07.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Defronzo, RA, Ferrannini, E, Groop, L, Henry, RR, Herman, WH, Holst, JJ, Hu, FB, Kahn, CR, Raz, I, Shulman, GI, Simonson, DC, Testa, MA & Weiss, R 2015, 'Type 2 diabetes mellitus', Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 1, 15019. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2015.19
Defronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Groop L, Henry RR, Herman WH, Holst JJ et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2015 Jul 23;1. 15019. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2015.19
Defronzo, Ralph A ; Ferrannini, Ele ; Groop, Leif ; Henry, Robert R. ; Herman, William H. ; Holst, Jens Juul ; Hu, Frank B. ; Kahn, C. Ronald ; Raz, Itamar ; Shulman, Gerald I. ; Simonson, Donald C. ; Testa, Marcia A. ; Weiss, Ram. / Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2015 ; Vol. 1.
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