Type 2 diabetes and the evolving paradigm in glucose regulation

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystem disease comprising numerous metabolic defects that contribute to the development of hyperglycemia. Although insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver together with progressive beta cell failure are traditionally thought of as the core defects responsible for the development and progression of hyperglycemia, research over the past 2 decades has revealed a far more complex interaction of organs and tissues, with consequences for the fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of glucose disequilibrium and the nature of T2DM itself. Dysfunctions in the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, pancreatic alpha cells, brain, and kidneys have all been described, and together with insights into the involvement of liver, muscle, and beta cells produce a more robust picture of T2DM. The function of the kidneys in abnormal glucose homeostasis is a striking example of this evolution in T2DM knowledge, as the role of glucose transporters in regulating plasma glucose levels and producing hyperglycemia has enhanced current understanding of T2DM. As pathophysiologic mechanisms and defects continue to be discovered, they offer an expansion of potential targets for treatment of T2DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S43-S50
JournalAmerican Journal of Managed Care
Issue number3 SUPPL
StatePublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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