Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of balloon dilation in the treatment of tuberculous tracheobronchial strictures (TTBSs) in a series of 113 patients at a single institution. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement to obtain informed consent. Between 1997 and 2014, under bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, a total of 167 balloon dilation sessions were performed in 113 consecutive patients (14 male and 99 female patients; mean age, 37 years [age range, 17-73 years]), with a range of one to eight sessions per patient (mean, 1.5 sessions). Outcomes were number and/or frequency of balloon dilations, technical success, primary and secondary clinical success, improvement in respiratory status, airway patency rate, and alternative treatment after balloon dilation. A two-tailed paired t test and the Kaplan-Meier method were used to evaluate the improvement in respiratory status and airway patency rate after balloon dilation, respectively. Results: Dilation was successful in 82 patients (73%) after single (n = 67) or multiple (n = 15) balloon dilations, with a mean follow-up of 30.3 months. Clinical failure occurred in 31 patients (27%). In these 31 patients, symptoms recurred 1 day to 113 months (mean, 13 months) after repeat balloon dilations. These 31 patients required alternative treatment, including temporary stent placement (n = 12), cutting balloon dilation (n = 12), radiation-eluting balloon dilation (n = 3), and surgery (n = 4). Before, immediately after, and 1 month after the procedure, pulmonary function test results showed significant improvements in mean forced vital capacity (P , .001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .001), forced expiratory flow in the midexpiratory phase (P = .020), and peak expiratory flow (P = .005). Conclusion: Balloon dilation of TTBSs is a safe, minimally invasive primary treatment that relieved symptoms in a large percentage of patients (73%). In patients with TTBSs refractory to balloon dilation, temporary stent placement, cutting balloon dilation, or radiation-eluting balloon dilation can be an alternative treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging