Programmed necrosis mediated by receptor interacting protein kinase (RIP)3 (also called RIPK3) has emerged as an alternate death pathway triggered by TNF family death receptors, pathogen sensors, IFNRs, Ag-specific TCR activation, and genotoxic stress. Necrosis leads to cell leakage and acts as a "trap door," eliminating cells that cannot die by apoptosis because of the elaboration of pathogen-encoded caspase inhibitors. Necrotic signaling requires RIP3 binding to one of three partners-RIP1, DAI, or TRIF-via a common RIP homotypic interaction motif. Once activated, RIP3 kinase targets the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like to drive cell lysis. Although necrotic and apoptotic death can enhance T cell cross-priming during infection, mice that lack these extrinsic programmed cell death pathways are able to produce Ag-specific T cells and control viral infection. The entwined relationship of apoptosis and necrosis evolved in response to pathogen-encoded suppressors to support host defense and contribute to inflammation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy