Objective Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a significant predisposition to vascular invasion. Tumor vascular invasion and thrombus are found in the renal vein and the inferior vena cava (IVC) in up to 10% to 25% of patients. This study reviewed the current status of radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy for advanced RCC. Methods A two-level search strategy of the literature (MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles listed between January 2000 and December 2015 was performed. The review was confined to patients with primary RCC associated with vascular invasion. Results Untreated RCC with intravascular thrombus has a median survival of 5 months. Surgical exposure and intervention are tailored to the level of tumor thrombus. The 30-day mortality for radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy is low (1.5%-10%), and the complication rates have been reported to be 18%, 20%, 26%, and 47% for IVC tumor thrombus level I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively. Disease-specific survival ranges from 40% to 60% at 5 years after nephrectomy and removal of the intravascular tumor. Conclusions Radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy is an effective cancer control operation that can be safely performed with acceptable mortality and morbidity. Preoperative imaging coupled with perioperative surgical management of the IVC is critical to procedural success and patient outcomes.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders|
|State||Published - May 2017|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine