Translating clinical trial results into practice: The effect of an AIDS Clinical Trial on prescribed antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant women

Barbara J. Turner, Craig J. Newschaffer, Daozhi Zhang, Thomas Fanning, Walter W. Hauck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations


Background: The success of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 076 in preventing vertical HIV transmission prompted intensive efforts to inform lay-persons and professionals about the trial's results. Objective: To explore community responsiveness to these efforts by assessing temporal, maternal, and health care factors associated with prescribed antiretroviral therapy before and after PACTG Protocol 076. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: New York State Medicaid program. Patients: 2607 HIV-infected women who delivered a living child between January 1993 and September 1996. Measurements: Adjusted odds of being prescribed antiretroviral treatment in the second or third trimester for women who delivered in period 1 (during the trial [January 1993 to February 1994]), period 2 (after the trial's end and announcement of the results to publication of the results [March 1994 to November 1994]), and period 3 (after publication of the trial results [December 1994 to September 1996]). Results: The adjusted odds of being prescribed antiretroviral therapy increased 21% per month in period 2 and decreased to 3% per month in period 3. In all time periods, the adjusted odds of being prescribed antiretroviral therapy were at least 60% greater (P<0.05) for women who were treated at an institution that performed HIV clinical trials, received HIV-focused ambulatory care, or had adequate prenatal care visits. After the trial, women receiving methadone treatment had at least twofold (95% Cl, 1.5- to 4.3- fold) greater adjusted odds of being prescribed antiretroviral therapy than women who did not take any illicit drugs. Latin-America woman, older women, and women born in the United States had greater adjusted odds (P<0.05) of being prescribed treatment in period 3. Conclusion: Community practice responded rapidly to efforts to disseminate the results of PACTG Protocol 076; however, the absolute increase in prescribed therapy was greatest for women who had adequate prenatal visits or were receiving HIV-focused care, care at a site that performed clinical trials, or methadone therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)979-986
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 1999


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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