Transforming neonatal care with artificial intelligence: challenges, ethical consideration, and opportunities

Brynne A. Sullivan, Kristyn Beam, Zachary A. Vesoulis, Khyzer B. Aziz, Ameena N. Husain, Lindsey A. Knake, Alvaro G. Moreira, Thomas A. Hooven, Elliott M. Weiss, Nicholas R. Carr, George T. El-Ferzli, Ravi M. Patel, Kelsey A. Simek, Antonio J. Hernandez, James S. Barry, Ryan M. McAdams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers tremendous potential to transform neonatology through improved diagnostics, personalized treatments, and earlier prevention of complications. However, there are many challenges to address before AI is ready for clinical practice. This review defines key AI concepts and discusses ethical considerations and implicit biases associated with AI. Next we will review literature examples of AI already being explored in neonatology research and we will suggest future potentials for AI work. Examples discussed in this article include predicting outcomes such as sepsis, optimizing oxygen therapy, and image analysis to detect brain injury and retinopathy of prematurity. Realizing AI’s potential necessitates collaboration between diverse stakeholders across the entire process of incorporating AI tools in the NICU to address testability, usability, bias, and transparency. With multi-center and multi-disciplinary collaboration, AI holds tremendous potential to transform the future of neonatology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Perinatology
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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