OBJECTIVE Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have harmful biologic effects that could increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but evidence remains uncertain. We aimed to investi-gate the prospective associations of TFA biomarkers and T2D by conducting an individual participant-level pooled analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included data from an international consortium of 12 prospective cohorts and nested case-control studies from six nations. TFA biomarkers were measured in blood collected between 1990 and 2008 from 25,126 participants aged ‡18 years without prevalent diabetes. Each cohort conducted de novo harmonized analyses using a prespecified protocol, and findings were pooled using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by prespecified between-study and within-study characteristics. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, 2,843 cases of incident T2D were identi-fied. In multivariable-adjusted pooled analyses, no significant associations with T2D were identified for trans/trans-18:2, relative risk (RR) 1.09 (95% CI 0.94–1.25); cis/trans-18:2, 0.89 (0.73–1.07); and trans/cis-18:2, 0.87 (0.73–1.03). Trans-16:1n-9, total trans-18:1, and total trans-18:2 were inversely associated with T2D (RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.67–0.99], 0.86 [0.75–0.99], and 0.84 [0.74–0.96], respectively). Findings were not significantly different according to prespecified sources of potential heterogeneity (each P ‡ 0.1). CONCLUSIONS Circulating individual trans-18:2 TFA biomarkers were not associated with risk of T2D, while trans-16:1n-9, total trans-18:1, and total trans-18:2 were inversely associated. Findings may reflect the influence of mixed TFA sources (industrial vs. natural ruminant), a general decline in TFA exposure due to policy changes during this period, or the relatively limited range of TFA levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing