Mandibular cortical and trabecular bone abnormalities in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were evaluated using dental panoramic radiographs (DPR) radiomorphometric indices and fractal dimension (FD). Sixty DPRs from 15 FAP patients and 45 healthy controls were evaluated. FAP group was composed of 33.3% females and 66.6% males, agemean = 37.2 years (SD 15.79). The non-FAP group was paired by gender and sex. The parameters analyzed were: FD of the trabecular bone in four regions of interest (ROI), mandibular cortical index (MCI) and width (MCW). FD values were lower for the FAP group. Statistically significance differences were shown by ROI 2 and 3 anteriorly to the mental foramen bilaterally, p = 0.001, and p = 0.006. The ROI 1 and 4, at the mandibular angle trabeculae, indicated statistical significances on the right side (p = 0.036) and no differences on the left side (p = 0.091). There was no significant difference in MCI and MCW when the groups were compared, MCW (L) p = 0.247, and MCW (R) p = 0.070. Fractal values of FAP patients' mandibular trabecular bone were lower than healthy controls. The radiomorphometric indices MCI and MCW were not useful for analyzing the cortical bone pattern. Therefore, FD is a promising tool for detection of abnormal bone structure in DPRs and for supporting the appropriate referral of FAP patients.
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