Total body irradiation causes residual bone marrow injury by induction of persistent oxidative stress in murine hematopoietic stem cells

Yong Wang, Lingbo Liu, Senthil K. Pazhanisamy, Hongliang Li, Aimin Meng, Daohong Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

223 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ionizing radiation (IR) and/or chemotherapy causes not only acute tissue damage but also late effects including long-term (or residual) bone marrow (BM) injury. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) senescence. However, the molecular mechanisms by which IR and/or chemotherapy induces HSC senescence have not been clearly defined, nor has an effective treatment been developed to ameliorate the injury. Thus, we investigated these mechanisms in this study. The results from this study show that exposure of mice to a sublethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI) induced a persistent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HSCs only. The induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs was associated with sustained increases in oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), inhibition of HSC clonogenic function, and induction of HSC senescence but not apoptosis. Treatment of the irradiated mice with N-acetylcysteine after TBI significantly attenuated IR-induced inhibition of HSC clonogenic function and reduction of HSC long-term engraftment after transplantation. The induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs by TBI is probably attributable to the up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), because irradiated HSCs expressed an increased level of NOX4, and inhibition of NOX activity with diphenylene iodonium but not apocynin significantly reduced TBI-induced increases in ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA DSBs in HSCs and dramatically improved HSC clonogenic function. These findings provide the foremost direct evidence demonstrating that TBI selectively induces chronic oxidative stress in HSCs at least in part via up-regulation of NOX4, which leads to the induction of HSC senescence and residual BM injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)348-356
Number of pages9
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Free radicals
  • Hematopoietic stem cells
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Senescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

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