Purpose: Acoustic trauma is more prevalent in military settings, especially among individuals with combat-related military occupational specialties. Gunfire, improvised explosive devices, and mortar explosions are a few examples that may cause hearing degradation and tinnitus. It is possible that the same events that are associated with auditory problems can cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: This paper reviews the distinct and overlapping symptoms of tinnitus, TBI, and PTSD, and how these disorders interact to synergistically promote negative outcomes. Results: Tinnitus may serve as a significant contributor to symptoms of TBI and PTSD. Therefore, tinnitus subtypes could be identified as physiologically or psychologically based, or both. Conclusions: Additional research is warranted to determine the common and unique symptoms and associated neurological pathways of tinnitus, TBI, and PTSD. Brief treatment recommendations are provided, including a multidisciplinary approach for the physical and psychological distress associated with tinnitus.
- Mental health
- Posttraumatic stress disorder
- Traumatic brain injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Psychology