Thyroid paragangliomas are rare tumors that arise from the inferior laryngeal paraganglia. Most patients are female and present with an asymptomatic thyroid nodule. Histologically, the tumor is composed of cells arranged in a well-defined nest (zellballen) pattern surrounded by a thin fibrovascular stroma. It is a diagnostic pitfall and is occasionally misdiagnosed as follicular neoplasm, medullary thyroid carcinoma, intrathyroid parathyroid proliferation, and especially secondary neuroendocrine tumors. Immunohistochemical stains (cytokeratin, parathyroid hormone, thyroid transcription factor 1, tyrosine hydroxylase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, S100, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen) are essential in establishing the diagnosis. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B (SDHB), immunoexpression can be used to triage genetic testing because some mutations are associated with a higher risk for developing metastasis. Total thyroidectomy or lobectomy for solitary lesion is the preferred treatment. Elective lymph node dissection is usually not indicated. Postoperatively, patients should receive hormonal evaluation for functional disease and imaging for evaluation of multifocal or metastatic disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology