Three-dimensional quantitative measurements of atrophy and fat infiltration in sub-regions of the supraspinatus muscle show heterogeneous distributions: a cadaveric study

Jose H. Trevino, Takuma Yuri, Taku Hatta, Yoshiro Kiyoshige, Philip M. Jacobs, Hugo Giambini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Rotator cuff tears are common in the older population. Atrophy and fat infiltration develop un-evenly in torn supraspinatus (SSP) muscles leading to pre- and post-surgical complications. The purpose of the current study was twofold: first, to implement a volumetric and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to quantify the degree of muscle atrophy and fat infiltration within the SSP muscle and its four sub-regions (AS, PS, AD, and PD); second to compare 3-D MRI outcomes to the standard 2-D assessment and investigate their relationship with tear size. Materials and methods: Fifteen cadaveric shoulders were obtained and MRI performed. Quantitative 3-D outcomes included SSP muscle volume, fossa volume, fat-free muscle volume, and fat fraction for the whole SSP muscle and its four sub-regions. 2-D and qualitative measurements included tear size, 2-D fat infiltration using the Goutallier classification, tangent sign, and occupation ratio. Results: Linear regression outcomes with tear size were not significant for both cross-sectional area (r = − 0.494, p = 0.061) and occupation ratio (r = − 0.011, p = 0.969). Tear size negatively correlated with fat-free muscle volume for both AS and PS sub-regions (AS: r = − 0.78, p < 0.001; PS: r = − 0.68, p = 0.005, respectively) while showing no significant correlation with fat fraction outcomes. AD and PD sub-regions positively correlated with tear size and fat fraction outcomes (AD: r = 0.70, p = 0.017; PD: r = 0.52, p = 0.045, respectively), while no significant correlation was observed between tear size and fat-free muscle volumes. Conclusion: Quantitative 3-D volumetric assessment of muscle degeneration resulted in better outcomes compared to the standard 2-D evaluation. The superficial supraspinatus muscle sub-regions primarily presented muscle atrophy, while the deep sub-regions were mainly affected by fat infiltration. 3-D assessments could be used pre-surgically to determine the best course of treatment and to estimate the muscles’ regenerative capacity and function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1395-1403
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Volume142
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Atrophy
  • Fat infiltration
  • Goutallier classification
  • Muscle sub-region
  • Occupation ratio
  • Rotator cuff tear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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