Thermoregulatory and thermal control in the human cutaneous circulation

John M. Johnson, Dean L. Kellogg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


The past 10-15 years has been a time of focus on the mechanisms of control in the human cutaneous circulation. Methodological developments have provided powerful means for resolving the important contributors to the reflex control of skin blood flow (thermoregulatory control) and also for the equally impressive effects of direct heating and cooling of the skin (thermal control). This review is devoted largely to that recent literature. We treat the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system and its transmitters and modulatory factors and the sympathetic active vasodilator system and its abundant mysteries, with focus on the putative transmitters and cotransmitters, the involvement of nitric oxide and the relationship to sweating and modulatory factors. We also deal with the current understanding of the mechanisms of vasoconstriction and vasodilation that accompany direct skin cooling and heating, noting that adrenergic function, afferent nerve function and the nitric oxide system are involved in the vascular responses to both thermal stimuli.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)825-853
Number of pages29
JournalFrontiers in Bioscience - Scholar
Volume2 S
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010


  • Active vasodilation
  • Adrenergic function
  • Human
  • Laser doppler flowmetry
  • Local cooling
  • Local heating
  • Microdialysis
  • Nitric oxide
  • Reflex vasoconstriction
  • Review
  • Skin circulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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