Theorizing the Role of Dopaminergic Polymorphic Risk Alleles with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), Violent/Aggressive Behavior and Addiction: Justification of Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) Testing

Edward Justin Modestino, Kenneth Blum, Catherine A. Dennen, B. William Downs, Debasis Bagchi, Luis Llanos-Gomez, Igor Elman, David Baron, Panayotis K. Thanos, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Eric R. Braverman, Ashim Gupta, Mark S. Gold, Abdalla Bowirrat

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

Abstract

Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined the Taq A1 allele (variant D2 dopamine receptor gene) and the DAT-40 base repeat (a variant of the dopamine transporter gene) in 11 Caucasian boys at the Brown School in San Marcus, Texas, diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder. Thirty supernormal controls were screened to exclude several reward–deficit behaviors, including pathological violence, and genotyped for the DRD2 gene. Additionally, 91 controls were screened to exclude ADHD, pathological violence, alcoholism, drug dependence, and tobacco abuse, and their results were compared with DAT1 genotype results. In the schoolboys vs. supercontrols, there was a significant association with the D2 variant and a trend with the dopamine transporter variant. Results support our hypothesis and the involvement of at least two gene risk alleles with adolescent violent/aggressive behaviors. This study and the research presented in this paper suggest that violent/aggressive behaviors are associated with a greater risk of addiction, mediated via various genes linked to the BRC. This review provides a contributory analysis of how gene polymorphisms, especially those related to the brain reward circuitry, are associated with violent behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1946
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism (DRD2)
  • Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1)
  • Dopamine homeostasis
  • GARS
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) in Adolescence
  • Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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