The TMEM127 tumor suppressor gene encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function mutated in pheochromocytomas and, rarely, in renal cancers. Tumors with inactivating TMEM127 mutations have increased mTORC1 signaling by undefined mechanisms. Here we report that TMEM127 interacts with the lysosome-anchored complex comprised of Rag GTPases, the LAMTOR pentamer (or 'ragulator') and vATPase, which controls amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. We found that under nutrient-rich conditions TMEM127 expression reduces mTORC1 recruitment to Rags. In addition, TMEM127 interacts with LAMTOR in an amino acid-dependent manner and decreases the LAMTOR1-vATPase association, while TMEM127-vATPase binding requires intact lysosomal acidification but is amino acid independent. Conversely, both murine and human cells lacking TMEM127 accumulate LAMTOR proteins in the lysosome. Consistent with these findings, pheochromocytomas with TMEM127 mutations have increased levels of LAMTOR proteins. These results suggest that TMEM127 interactions with ragulator and vATPase at the lysosome contribute to restrain mTORC1 signaling in response to amino acids, thus explaining the increased mTORC1 activation seen in TMEM127-deficient tumors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology