The synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and its derivative 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im) are multifunctional molecules with potent antiproliferative, differentiating, and anti-inflammatory activities. At nanomolar concentrations, these agents rapidly increase the expression of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Transfection studies using a series of reporter constructs show that activation of the human HO-1 promoter by the triterpenoids requires an antioxidant response element (ARE), a cyclic AMP response element, and an E Box sequence. Inactivation of one of these response elements alone partially reduces HO-1 induction, but mutations in all three sequences entirely eliminate promoter activity in response to the triterpenoids. Treatment with CDDO-Im also elevates protein levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor previously shown to bind ARE sequences, and increases expression of a number of antioxidant and detoxification genes regulated by Nrf2. The triterpenoids also reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species in cells challenged with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, but this cytoprotective activity is absent in Nrf2 deficient cells. These studies are the first to investigate the induction of the HO-1 and Nrf2/ARE pathways by CDDO and CDDO-Im, and our results suggest that further in vivo studies are needed to explore the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of the triterpenoids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research