The Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale: evidence for the cultural equivalence of mutuality in Mexican American families.

Janice D. Crist, Socorro Escandón, Barbara J. Stewart, Patricia G. Archbold

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    9 Scopus citations


    Mutuality, the positive quality of the relationship between the family caregiver and care receiver, is an important variable in family care for frail older adults. It has been shown to be associated with lower levels of caregiver strain and higher levels of caregiving rewards. However, the concept and measure of mutuality were developed with non-Hispanic White samples. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of an instrument-the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. We determined for Mexican American families: (a) the functional equivalence of mutuality, (b) a comparative descriptive framework for mutuality, and (c) the language equivalence of the Mutuality Scale and the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. Evaluating mutuality levels for Mexican American older adults and caregivers, especially in view of their strong cultural norm of familism, is essential.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)285-294
    Number of pages10
    JournalResearch in gerontological nursing
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008


    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nursing(all)
    • Gerontology
    • Health Policy
    • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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