1. 1. Overwintering queens of the bald faced hornet, Vespula maculata, are tolerant of ice formation in their body fluids down to temperatures of approximately - 14°C. 2. 2. Contributing to this frost tolerance is a high concentration of the cryoprotectant glycerol in the overwintering queens. An additional factor is the presence in the hemolymph of macromolecular ice nucleating agents which function to induce harmless extracellular ice formation at comparatively high temperatures (-4.6°C), and thereby prevent lethal intracellular ice formation. 3. 3. These ice nucleating agents have molecular weights greater than 3500 and are probably proteinaceous.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part A: Physiology|
|State||Published - 1978|
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