The role of gram-negative bacteria in healthcare-associated pneumonia

Marcos I. Restrepo, Antonio Anzueto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a unique entity that differs from community-acquired pneumonia in both bacteriology and outcomes and has similarities to hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. HCAP patients are at higher risk of potential multidrug-resistant pathogens, including resistant gram-negative organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., but also extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This manuscript reviews the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized HCAP patients due to gram-negative bacteria. We will focus our attention on the potential multidrug-resistant pathogens to suggest a new treatment approach for these patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-66
Number of pages6
JournalSeminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009


  • Healthcare-associated
  • Outcomes
  • Pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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