Energy homeostasis is coordinated by bidirectional communication pathways between the brain and peripheral organs, including adipose tissue, muscle, the pancreas, liver, and gut. Disruption of the integrated chemical, hormonal, and neuronal signals that constitute the gut-brain axis significantly contributes to disorders of metabolism and body weight. Initial studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone released in response to the ingestion of nutrients, focused on its incretin actions to improve postprandial glucose homeostasis by enhancing meal-induced insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 is also a key player in the gut-brain regulatory axis with multiple effects on appetite and energy metabolism outside of its peripheral glucoregulatory actions. In this review, we explore the function of GLP-1 as a component of the gut-brain axis in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and consider the implications of this role for the development of therapeutic treatment options for obesity.
- energy homeostasis
- glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
- gut-brain axis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism