The pillbox test: An ecological measure of executive functioning and estimate of medication management abilities

Andrea L. Zartman, Robin C. Hilsabeck, Charles A. Guarnaccia, Andrew Houtz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Studies indicate that executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of everyday function. However, assessment can be problematic as no single standardized instrument is known to measure all EF domains simultaneously. Thus, the Pillbox Test was developed as a new measure tapping four EF factors through the real-time assessment of medication management, a complex instrumental activity of daily living. The Pillbox Test showed good criterion-related validity and was effective in differentiating graduated levels of executive dysfunction between a mixed neurological group, medical control group, and healthy community control group. This test also showed good convergent validity as it correlated significantly in expected directions with established EF measures in all four of selected EF domains and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status. Finally, a receiver operator characteristic curve found a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 87.5%, suggesting that the Pillbox Test is a promising new ecological measure of EF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-319
Number of pages13
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

Keywords

  • Assessment
  • Executive functions
  • Test construction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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