The novel capsazepine analog, CIDD-99, significantly inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo through a TRPV1-independent induction of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis

Jorge J. De La Chapa, Prajjal K. Singha, Kristen K. Self, McKay L. Sallaway, Stanton F. McHardy, Matthew J Hart, Howard S Mcguff, Matthew C. Valdez, Francisco Ruiz, Srikanth R. Polusani, Cara B Gonzales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly disease with a mere 40% five-year survival rate for patients with advanced disease. Previously, we discovered that capsazepine (CPZ), a transient receptor potential channel, Vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, has significant anti-tumor effects against OSCC via a unique mechanism-of-action that is independent of TRPV1. Thus, we developed novel CPZ analogs with more potent anti-proliferative effects (CIDD-24, CIDD-99, and CIDD-111). Methods: Using OSCC xenograft models, we determined the efficacy of these analogs in vivo. TRPV1 interactions were evaluated using calcium imaging and a rat model of orofacial pain. Anti-cancer mechanism(s)-of-action were assessed by cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial depolarization assays. Results: CIDD-99 was the most potent analog demonstrating significant anti-tumor effects in vivo (P < 0.001). CIDD-24 was equipotent to the parent compound CPZ, but less potent than CIDD-99. CIDD-111 was the least efficacious analog. Calcium imaging studies confirmed that CIDD-99 neither activates nor inhibits TRPV1 confirming that TRPV1 activity is not involved in its anti-cancer effects. All analogs induced an S-phase block, dose-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis. Histological analyses revealed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumors treated with these analogs. Importantly, CIDD-99 had the most dramatic anti-tumor effects with 85% of tumors resolving leaving only minute traces of viable tissue. Additionally, CIDD-99 was non-noxious and demonstrated no observable adverse reactions. Conclusion: This study describes a novel, highly efficacious, CPZ analog, CIDD-99, with dramatic anti-tumor effects against OSCC that may be efficacious as a lone therapy or in combination with standard therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Apoptosis
Neoplasms
Calcium
Facial Pain
capsazepine
S Phase
Heterografts
Cell Cycle
Survival Rate
Cell Proliferation

Keywords

  • capsazepine analog
  • mitochondria
  • oral cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Cancer Research
  • Periodontics

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The novel capsazepine analog, CIDD-99, significantly inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo through a TRPV1-independent induction of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. / De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Singha, Prajjal K.; Self, Kristen K.; Sallaway, McKay L.; McHardy, Stanton F.; Hart, Matthew J; Mcguff, Howard S; Valdez, Matthew C.; Ruiz, Francisco; Polusani, Srikanth R.; Gonzales, Cara B.

In: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

De La Chapa, Jorge J. ; Singha, Prajjal K. ; Self, Kristen K. ; Sallaway, McKay L. ; McHardy, Stanton F. ; Hart, Matthew J ; Mcguff, Howard S ; Valdez, Matthew C. ; Ruiz, Francisco ; Polusani, Srikanth R. ; Gonzales, Cara B. / The novel capsazepine analog, CIDD-99, significantly inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo through a TRPV1-independent induction of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. In: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2019.
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title = "The novel capsazepine analog, CIDD-99, significantly inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo through a TRPV1-independent induction of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis",
abstract = "Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly disease with a mere 40{\%} five-year survival rate for patients with advanced disease. Previously, we discovered that capsazepine (CPZ), a transient receptor potential channel, Vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, has significant anti-tumor effects against OSCC via a unique mechanism-of-action that is independent of TRPV1. Thus, we developed novel CPZ analogs with more potent anti-proliferative effects (CIDD-24, CIDD-99, and CIDD-111). Methods: Using OSCC xenograft models, we determined the efficacy of these analogs in vivo. TRPV1 interactions were evaluated using calcium imaging and a rat model of orofacial pain. Anti-cancer mechanism(s)-of-action were assessed by cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial depolarization assays. Results: CIDD-99 was the most potent analog demonstrating significant anti-tumor effects in vivo (P < 0.001). CIDD-24 was equipotent to the parent compound CPZ, but less potent than CIDD-99. CIDD-111 was the least efficacious analog. Calcium imaging studies confirmed that CIDD-99 neither activates nor inhibits TRPV1 confirming that TRPV1 activity is not involved in its anti-cancer effects. All analogs induced an S-phase block, dose-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis. Histological analyses revealed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumors treated with these analogs. Importantly, CIDD-99 had the most dramatic anti-tumor effects with 85{\%} of tumors resolving leaving only minute traces of viable tissue. Additionally, CIDD-99 was non-noxious and demonstrated no observable adverse reactions. Conclusion: This study describes a novel, highly efficacious, CPZ analog, CIDD-99, with dramatic anti-tumor effects against OSCC that may be efficacious as a lone therapy or in combination with standard therapies.",
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T1 - The novel capsazepine analog, CIDD-99, significantly inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo through a TRPV1-independent induction of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis

AU - De La Chapa, Jorge J.

AU - Singha, Prajjal K.

AU - Self, Kristen K.

AU - Sallaway, McKay L.

AU - McHardy, Stanton F.

AU - Hart, Matthew J

AU - Mcguff, Howard S

AU - Valdez, Matthew C.

AU - Ruiz, Francisco

AU - Polusani, Srikanth R.

AU - Gonzales, Cara B

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly disease with a mere 40% five-year survival rate for patients with advanced disease. Previously, we discovered that capsazepine (CPZ), a transient receptor potential channel, Vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, has significant anti-tumor effects against OSCC via a unique mechanism-of-action that is independent of TRPV1. Thus, we developed novel CPZ analogs with more potent anti-proliferative effects (CIDD-24, CIDD-99, and CIDD-111). Methods: Using OSCC xenograft models, we determined the efficacy of these analogs in vivo. TRPV1 interactions were evaluated using calcium imaging and a rat model of orofacial pain. Anti-cancer mechanism(s)-of-action were assessed by cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial depolarization assays. Results: CIDD-99 was the most potent analog demonstrating significant anti-tumor effects in vivo (P < 0.001). CIDD-24 was equipotent to the parent compound CPZ, but less potent than CIDD-99. CIDD-111 was the least efficacious analog. Calcium imaging studies confirmed that CIDD-99 neither activates nor inhibits TRPV1 confirming that TRPV1 activity is not involved in its anti-cancer effects. All analogs induced an S-phase block, dose-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis. Histological analyses revealed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumors treated with these analogs. Importantly, CIDD-99 had the most dramatic anti-tumor effects with 85% of tumors resolving leaving only minute traces of viable tissue. Additionally, CIDD-99 was non-noxious and demonstrated no observable adverse reactions. Conclusion: This study describes a novel, highly efficacious, CPZ analog, CIDD-99, with dramatic anti-tumor effects against OSCC that may be efficacious as a lone therapy or in combination with standard therapies.

AB - Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly disease with a mere 40% five-year survival rate for patients with advanced disease. Previously, we discovered that capsazepine (CPZ), a transient receptor potential channel, Vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, has significant anti-tumor effects against OSCC via a unique mechanism-of-action that is independent of TRPV1. Thus, we developed novel CPZ analogs with more potent anti-proliferative effects (CIDD-24, CIDD-99, and CIDD-111). Methods: Using OSCC xenograft models, we determined the efficacy of these analogs in vivo. TRPV1 interactions were evaluated using calcium imaging and a rat model of orofacial pain. Anti-cancer mechanism(s)-of-action were assessed by cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial depolarization assays. Results: CIDD-99 was the most potent analog demonstrating significant anti-tumor effects in vivo (P < 0.001). CIDD-24 was equipotent to the parent compound CPZ, but less potent than CIDD-99. CIDD-111 was the least efficacious analog. Calcium imaging studies confirmed that CIDD-99 neither activates nor inhibits TRPV1 confirming that TRPV1 activity is not involved in its anti-cancer effects. All analogs induced an S-phase block, dose-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis. Histological analyses revealed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumors treated with these analogs. Importantly, CIDD-99 had the most dramatic anti-tumor effects with 85% of tumors resolving leaving only minute traces of viable tissue. Additionally, CIDD-99 was non-noxious and demonstrated no observable adverse reactions. Conclusion: This study describes a novel, highly efficacious, CPZ analog, CIDD-99, with dramatic anti-tumor effects against OSCC that may be efficacious as a lone therapy or in combination with standard therapies.

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KW - mitochondria

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