The natural history of left ventricular geometry in the community: Clinical correlates and prognostic significance of change in LV geometric pattern

Wolfgang Lieb, Philimon Gona, Martin G. Larson, Jayashri Aragam, Michael R. Zile, Susan Cheng, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ramachandran S. Vasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study sought to evaluate pattern and clinical correlates of change in left ventricular (LV) geometry over a 4-year period in the community; it also assessed whether the pattern of change in LV geometry over 4 years predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death, during an additional subsequent follow-up period. Background: It is unclear how LV geometric patterns change over time and whether changes in LV geometry have prognostic significance. Methods: This study evaluated 4,492 observations (2,604 unique Framingham Heart Study participants attending consecutive examinations) to categorize LV geometry at baseline and after 4 years. Four groups were defined on the basis of the sex-specific distributions of left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) (normal: LVM and RWT <80th percentile; concentric remodeling: LVM <80th percentile but RWT ≥80th percentile; eccentric hypertrophy: LVM ≥80th percentile but RWT <80th percentile; and concentric hypertrophy: LVM and RWT ≥80th percentile). Results: At baseline, 2,874 of 4,492 observations (64%) had normal LVM and RWT. Participants with normal geometry or concentric remodeling progressed infrequently (4% to 8%) to eccentric or concentric hypertrophy. Change from eccentric to concentric hypertrophy was uncommon (8%). Among participants with concentric hypertrophy, 19% developed eccentric hypertrophy within the 4-year period. Among participants with abnormal LV geometry at baseline, a significant proportion (29% to 53%) reverted to normal geometry within 4 years. Higher blood pressure, greater body mass index (BMI), advancing age, and male sex were key correlates of developing an abnormal geometry. Development of an abnormal LV geometric pattern over 4 years was associated with increased CVD risk (140 events) during a subsequent median follow-up of 12 years (adjusted-hazards ratio: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.43). Conclusions: The longitudinal observations in the community suggest that dynamic changes in LV geometric pattern over time are common. Higher blood pressure and greater BMI are modifiable factors associated with the development of abnormal LV geometry, and such progression portends an adverse prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)870-878
Number of pages9
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Change over time
  • Echocardiography
  • Epidemiology
  • Heart failure
  • LV geometry
  • Remodeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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