Background: Percutaneous intervention for symptomatic renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) has replaced surgical therapy as first-line treatment. This study evaluates the factors that impact long-term anatomic and functional outcomes of endovascular therapy for symptomatic renal artery FMD. Methods: Records of patients who underwent renal artery angioplasty for FMD between January 1990 and December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Indication for intervention was poorly controlled hypertension (diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg or systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg, or both, taking >2 antihypertensive medications). Twenty-nine women (average age, 45 years [range, 18-80]; 86% with a history of hypertension <8 years) underwent 38 attempted interventions. Sixty-six percent of contralateral kidneys were normal (31% had a ≤60% stenosis), 13% had >60% stenosis, and the remainder were nonfunctioning or absent. Creatinine was >1.5 mg/dL in 4%, 24% had hyperlipidemia, 17% had metabolic syndrome, and 4% were considered diabetic. Outcomes: All interventions were successfully performed. Stent placement was required in 13% for technical failure and flow-limiting dissection. Seventy-three percent of these lesions were in the proximal renal artery, with the remainder in the middle renal artery. Technical success (<30% residual stenosis) was achieved in all vessels. There were no periprocedural or 90-day deaths. The procedurally related complication rate was 8%. Median follow-up was 2 years. All patients were alive at follow-up. Primary and assisted primary patency rates were 66% and 87% at 5 years. Restenosis was considered a 50% reduction in luminal area on angiography during follow-up. The restenosis rate was 28% at 5 years (10 vessels underwent repeat percutaneous intervention). Immediate clinical benefit was seen in hypertension in 72% (improved or cured ≤3 months) and was maintained in 73% at 5 years by life-table analysis. Proportional hazard analysis showed the predictors of long-term clinical benefit were duration of hypertension <8 years, creatinine <1.5 mg/dL, ipsilateral kidney size >9 cm, functional status of the contralateral kidney, a fasting blood glucose <110 mg/dL, triglycerides <150 mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein >50 mg/dL. Neither age <50 years nor statin administration appeared significant. Conclusions: Percutaneous endovascular intervention for clinically symptomatic FMD in the renal arteries is technically successful, safe, and durable. Most patients have immediate clinical benefit, with continued long-term results out to 5 years. It appears that the presence of existing renal pathology and markers of prediabetic state are associated with recurrence of hypertensive symptoms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine